Monsieur le PrÃ©sident,
Depuis le dernier briefing du ReprÃ©sentant spÃ©cial du SecrÃ©taire gÃ©nÃ©ral, M. JÃ¡n KubiÅ¡, au mois de mars, la situation en Afghanistan a Ã©tÃ© marquÃ©e par dâ€™importants dÃ©veloppements internes et externes.
Des progrÃ¨s importants ont Ã©tÃ© rÃ©alisÃ©s Ã lâ€™occasion des deux confÃ©rences internationales de Kaboul et de Chicago – avec une troisiÃ¨me qui doit se tenir le mois prochain Ã Tokyo.Â Ces progrÃ¨s ont contribuÃ© Ã faÃ§onner et dÃ©finir plus prÃ©cisÃ©ment les contours du futur de l’Afghanistan.
La ConfÃ©rence ministÃ©rielle de Kaboul qui sâ€™est tenue le 14 Juin fut lâ€™occasion pour lâ€™Afghanistan de dÃ©montrer son efficacitÃ© dans la conduite dâ€™un processus essentiel pour sa stabilitÃ© Ã venirÂ : celui qui consiste en dÃ©velopper la confiance et la coopÃ©ration rÃ©gionale.Â Le processus dâ€™Istanbul, dirigÃ© par les Afghans, en partenariat avec les acteurs rÃ©gionaux, et avec lâ€™appui de la communautÃ© internationale, a permis dâ€™importantes avancÃ©es depuis son lancement en novembre de lâ€™annÃ©e derniÃ¨re, il y a un peu plus de sept mois.
Ã€ Kaboul, les nations Â«Â Heart of AsiaÂ Â» ont adoptÃ© sept mesures de confiance, Ã©laborÃ©es dans le cadre dâ€™un processus consultatif rÃ©gional, portant sur les menaces communes et les obstacles Ã la stabilitÃ© rÃ©gionale, le dÃ©veloppement Ã©conomique, et les questions humanitaires.Â Dâ€™autres mesures de ce type sont attendues Ã lâ€™issue de ce processus. Je me fÃ©licite que ces nations aient fait appel aux organismes compÃ©tents des Nations Unies qui fourniront un appui technique Ã chacune de ces initiatives.
Ce processus reprÃ©sente une avancÃ©e stratÃ©gique qui est particuliÃ¨rement important notamment parce que sous conduite afghane.Â Il sâ€™ajoute aux instances bi-latÃ©rales, tri-latÃ©rales et multi-latÃ©rales dÃ©jÃ en place, avec notamment l’Organisation de coopÃ©ration de Shanghai, la ConfÃ©rence afghane de coopÃ©ration Ã©conomique rÃ©gionale, lâ€™Association sud-asiatique pour la coopÃ©ration rÃ©gionale. Il doit contribuer Ã notre objectif commun, qui est celui de construire une rÃ©gion empreinte de stabilitÃ©, prospÃ©ritÃ© et coopÃ©ration.
En ce qui concerne les initiatives rÃ©gionales onusiennes, jâ€™apprÃ©cie le rÃ´le jouÃ© par des agences de lâ€™Organisation des Nations Unies pour relever les dÃ©fis persistant qui dÃ©passent la capacitÃ© d’un seul pays de la rÃ©gion.
Tout dâ€™abord, je note le travail de l’Office du Haut Commissariat aux RÃ©fugiÃ©s. Plus de trois millions de rÃ©fugiÃ©s afghans ont Ã©tÃ© enregistrÃ©s au Pakistan et en Iran, avec un impact Ã©norme pas seulment pour lâ€™Afghanistan, mais aussi pour ces deux pays.Â Ainsi, je me rÃ©jouis et je vous appelle Ã apporter votre soutien Ã la stratÃ©gie de solutions pour les rÃ©fugiÃ©s afghans, lancÃ©e Ã GenÃ¨ve en mai dernier par l’Afghanistan, le Pakistan et l’Iran, avec le soutien du HCR et d’autres membres de la famille des Nations Unies, pour permettre leÂ retour et la rÃ©intÃ©gration des rÃ©fugiÃ©s afghans d’une faÃ§on globale et durable.
[SI UNODC Sâ€™ADDRESSE AU CS: La production et le trafic de stupÃ©fiants en provenance d’Afghanistan menace la stabilitÃ© de la rÃ©gion et touche le monde entier.Â Je suis heureux que le SecrÃ©taire gÃ©nÃ©ral adjoint Yuri Fedotov de l’Office des Nations unies contre la drogue et le crime soit ici aujourdâ€™hui pour nous informer des derniers dÃ©veloppements liÃ©s Ã la lutte contre les stupÃ©fiants et la criminalitÃ© transfrontaliÃ¨re.]
Monsieur le PrÃ©sident,
The Meeting on Afghanistan on May 21, which took place as part of the NATO Summit in Chicago, went a long way towards defining the shape of, and the long-term support to, Afghan National Security Forces. We saw important guarantees â€“ both financial and technical â€“ as well as a reconfirmation of NATO commitments to previously agreed timelines for transition.
Providing this level of clarity and commitment on continued support to the security sector helps to dampen growing anxiety both within Afghanistan as well as among its international partners as to the post-2014 situation. It also reinforces the message from the international community that Transition will not translate into an abandonment of Afghanistan.
As Afghan National Security Forces gradually assume responsibility for security of the country, we will continue to advocate for the strengthening of their oversight and accountability mechanisms â€“ particularly within police and local police structures. Again, I emphasize that all parties, and given their increased responsibilities Afghan security forces in particular, must continue to prioritize the protection of civilians.
As the Secretary-Generalâ€™s report on Afghanistan notes, the past three months saw a dramatic decline in the number of security incidents over 2011, but it was also marked by large-scale incidents and an increase in the use of tactics which target civilians, particularly the indiscriminate use of Improvised Explosive Devices and targeted killing of civilians by anti-Government elements. And let us not forget, it is these forces that are responsible for up to 80 per cent of civilian causalities.
As Special Representative KubiÅ¡ highlighted in May, UNAMA has documented that 2011 marked the fifth consecutive year of increasing civilian casualties. This is simply not acceptable. We continue to urge all parties to the conflict to increase their efforts to protect civilians and call for individuals responsible to be held accountable.
On that note, I wish to make special mention of the 12 June ISAF decision, following the tragic civilian deaths from an air strike in Logar Province six days earlier, to increase restrictions on the use of aerial munitions against civilian dwellings. Although the number of incidents attributed to pro-Government forces continues to decline and is a small portion of the total â€“ and these forces, notably ISAF, continue to vigorously adopt measures to reduce civilian casualties â€“ UNAMA has repeatedly expressed concern that aerial operations have resulted in more civilian deaths and injuries than any other tactic used by pro-Government forces.Â This ISAF decision is a welcome development.
Security alone will not bring lasting stability and peace to Afghanistan. Just as we have seen progress in defining long-term support to the security side, it is equally important to see the same level of commitment to the social-economic development sector. Therefore, we very much look forward to the upcoming Tokyo Conference as an important step in that direction. The Secretary-General will head the United Nations delegation, which will include the UNAMA Special Representative and myself.
We have noted concerns from all sides that the fine words and commitments expressed during the many conferences on Afghanistan over the past decade be lived up to. To that end, I welcome the ongoing development of a framework and a mechanism which will track progress on such commitments and hold both the Afghan Government and donors accountable for their implementation. This â€˜Mutual Accountability Mechanismâ€™, which should report through the Joint Coordination and Monitoring Board, is expected to be agreed upon in Tokyo and will provide a solid foundation upon which to build long-term development support.
However, we must ensure that expectations surrounding what Afghanistan can do over a short timeframe â€“ given capacity and resource limitations and given the fragility of its nascent institutions â€“ are realistic and do not prove self-defeating.
We must keep in mind our overall objective: to see a stable, self-reliant Afghanistan with effective institutions delivering essential services, justice and opportunities to its people. We will only reach this goal if we continue to invest in Afghanistanâ€™s maturing institutions and in the priorities Afghans themselves set.
I welcome Afghan leadership on the processes that most affect the country and its people, starting with the prioritization of development objectives and the Heart of Asia process I noted earlier, but also including reconciliation initiatives and the preparation of upcoming elections.
The appointment of Salahuddin Rabbani to lead the High Peace Council signals continued engagement, commitment and continuity from the Afghan Government. The United Nations continues to stand ready to support the Councilâ€™s efforts and looks forward to seeing an Afghan-led peace and reconciliation process gain momentum.
The upcoming 2014 elections will be a watershed moment, with significant impact on the consolidation of the progress made to date and on long-term stability. They should be held in full accord with the Constitution to ensure a smooth political transition and to demonstrate Afghanistanâ€™s growing self-reliance and sovereignty. We welcome President Karzaiâ€™s statement in Chicago in May that elections must be marked by integrity and must be free from internal or external interventions. Already we are seeing a rise in political activity and debate ahead of the 2014 polls.
We also welcome the constructive consultation process on the electoral law, which the Independent Elections Commission recently completed as well as the decision to begin work on the voter registry â€“ both encouraging signs of an essential ingredient for a sound process, inclusiveness.
In addition to the ongoing United Nations Development Programmeâ€™s Elect II project, providing electoral technical support, Special Representative KubiÅ¡ has been consulting with the Government and relevant institutions to determine how best the United Nations can assist the electoral process. With some two years to go before elections, it is critical that such Government decisions proceed apace.
As our report clearly shows, humanitarian issues continue to be a cause for concern. This yearâ€™s spring floods have been particularly severe following the harsh 2011-12 winter, and continuing conflict exacerbates already serious displacement issues. The Emergency Relief Coordinator, on her recent visit, highlighted the extensive humanitarian needs, an uncertain future and the lagging support for this yearâ€™s Consolidated Appeal. While we must aim over the longer-term to link humanitarian assistance with development initiatives, we cannot neglect the urgent, immediate needs on the ground.
Allow me to turn to developments which affect more directly the future of the UNAMA mission itself.
Circumstances around the world â€“ including financial crises in major economies and competing demands for international attention â€“ have combined to impact United Nations peace operations and have led to shrinking budgets. This will likely also affect UNAMA. Expectations that the Mission will be able to do more, as transition proceeds, are unrealistic in the face of this greater fiscal austerity.
UNAMA and other special political missions must meet targets set by the General Assembly over twoâ€“year cycles. While it is ultimately for UN budgetary bodies to determine budgets and resource requirements, the budget we will put forward for UNAMA for 2013 will reflect the overall need for cuts requested by Member States.
As noted in the Secretary-Generalâ€™s report, a strategic decision has been made to reshape our provincial footprint in line with recommendations from the Comprehensive Review undertaken last year at the Security Councilâ€™s request, with changes related to Transition and with the latest Security Council mandate. This decision will certainly reduce costs.
For the Mission to address a significant reduction to its budget, UNAMA will also need to review all aspects of its substantive and support structures and prioritize its programming activities. Such an exercise would necessarily have an impact on mandate delivery, the extent of which is yet to be determined and will soon be reported to the United Nations budgetary bodies and this Council.
Monsieur le PrÃ©sident,
Les discussions informelles sur le rÃ´le de la communautÃ© internationale aprÃ¨s 2014, y compris celui des Nations Unies, en Afghanistan, doivent prendre en considÃ©ration les contraintes budgÃ©taires et programmatiques que je viens dâ€™Ã©noncer, ainsi que les impÃ©ratifs de la transition et la situation sur le terrain.Â Ces discussions doivent Ã©galement faire lâ€™objet dâ€™un processus de consultation adÃ©quat, d’abord et avant tout avec le gouvernement afghan, afin de permettre au Conseil de sÃ©curitÃ© de prendre une dÃ©cision Ã©clairÃ©e.
Thank you, Mr. President