Saturday, October 1, 2016

A Featured Article In Honor of International Day for Eradication of Poverty 17 October

From The Economist’s Special Report:


Growing inequality is one of the biggest social, economic and political challenges of our time. But it is not inevitable, says Zanny Minton Beddoes

Oct 13th 2012 | from the print edition


IN 1889, AT the height of America’s first Gilded Age, George Vanderbilt II, grandson of the original railway magnate, set out to build a country estate in the Blue Ridge mountains of North Carolina. He hired the most prominent architect of the time, toured the chateaux of the Loire for inspiration, laid a railway to bring in limestone from Indiana and employed more than 1,000 labourers. Six years later “Biltmore” was completed. With 250 rooms spread over 175,000 square feet (16,000 square metres), the mansion was 300 times bigger than the average dwelling of its day. It had central heating, an indoor swimming pool, a bowling alley, lifts and an intercom system at a time when most American homes had neither electricity nor indoor plumbing.

A bit over a century later, America’s second Gilded Age has nothing quite like the Vanderbilt extravaganza. Bill Gates’s home near Seattle is full of high-tech gizmos, but, at 66,000 square feet, it is a mere 30 times bigger than the average modern American home. Disparities in wealth are less visible in Americans’ everyday lives today than they were a century ago. Even poor people have televisions, air conditioners and cars.

But appearances deceive. The democratisation of living standards has masked a dramatic concentration of incomes over the past 30 years, on a scale that matches, or even exceeds, the first Gilded Age. Including capital gains, the share of national income going to the richest 1% of Americans has doubled since 1980, from 10% to 20%, roughly where it was a century ago. Even more striking, the share going to the top 0.01%—some 16,000 families with an average income of $24m—has quadrupled, from just over 1% to almost 5%. That is a bigger slice of the national pie than the top 0.01% received 100 years ago.

This is an extraordinary development, and it is not confined to America. Many countries, including Britain, Canada, China, India and even egalitarian Sweden, have seen a rise in the share of national income taken by the top 1%. The numbers of the ultra-wealthy have soared around the globe. According toForbes magazine’s rich list, America has some 421 billionaires, Russia 96, China 95 and India 48. The world’s richest man is a Mexican (Carlos Slim, worth some $69 billion). The world’s largest new house belongs to an Indian. Mukesh Ambani’s 27-storey skyscraper in Mumbai occupies 400,000 square feet, making it 1,300 times bigger than the average shack in the slums that surround it.

The concentration of wealth at the very top is part of a much broader rise in disparities all along the income distribution. The best-known way of measuring inequality is the Gini coefficient, named after an Italian statistician called Corrado Gini. It aggregates the gaps between people’s incomes into a single measure. If everyone in a group has the same income, the Gini coefficient is 0; if all income goes to one person, it is 1.

The level of inequality differs widely around the world. Emerging economies are more unequal than rich ones. Scandinavian countries have the smallest income disparities, with a Gini coefficient for disposable income of around 0.25. At the other end of the spectrum the world’s most unequal, such as South Africa, register Ginis of around 0.6. (Because of the way the scale is constructed, a modest-sounding difference in the Gini ratio implies a big difference in inequality.)



Income gaps have also changed to varying degrees. America’s Gini for disposable income is up by almost 30% since 1980, to 0.39. Sweden’s is up by a quarter, to 0.24. China’s has risen by around 50% to 0.42 (and by some measures to 0.48). The biggest exception to the general upward trend is Latin America, long the world’s most unequal continent, where Gini coefficients have fallen sharply over the past ten years. But the majority of the people on the planet live in countries where income disparities are bigger than they were a generation ago.

That does not mean the world as a whole has become more unequal. Global inequality—the income gaps between all people on the planet—has begun to fall as poorer countries catch up with richer ones. Two French economists, François Bourguignon and Christian Morrisson, have calculated a “global Gini” that measures the scale of income disparities among everyone in the world. Their index shows that global inequality rose in the 19th and 20th centuries because richer economies, on average, grew faster than poorer ones. Recently that pattern has reversed and global inequality has started to fall even as inequality within many countries has risen. By that measure, the planet as a whole is becoming a fairer place. But in a world of nation states it is inequality within countries that has political salience, and this special report will focus on that.



From U to N

The widening of income gaps is a reversal of the pattern in much of the 20th century, when inequality narrowed in many countries. That narrowing seemed so inevitable that Simon Kuznets, a Belarusian-born Harvard economist, in 1955 famously described the relationship between inequality and prosperity as an upside-down U. According to the “Kuznets curve”, inequality rises in the early stages of industrialisation as people leave the land, become more productive and earn more in factories. Once industrialisation is complete and better-educated citizens demand redistribution from their government, it declines again.

Until 1980 this prediction appeared to have been vindicated. But the past 30 years have put paid to the Kuznets curve, at least in advanced economies. These days the inverted U has turned into something closer to an italicised N, with the final stroke pointing menacingly upwards.

Although inequality has been on the rise for three decades, its political prominence is newer. During the go-go years before the financial crisis, growing disparities were hardly at the top of politicians’ to-do list. One reason was that asset bubbles and cheap credit eased life for everyone. Financiers were growing fabulously wealthy in the early 2000s, but others could also borrow ever more against the value of their home.

That changed after the crash. The bank rescues shone a spotlight on the unfairness of a system in which affluent bankers were bailed out whereas ordinary folk lost their houses and jobs. And in today’s sluggish economies, more inequality often means that people at the bottom and even in the middle of the income distribution are falling behind not just in relative but also in absolute terms.

The Occupy Wall Street campaign proved incoherent and ephemeral, but inequality and fairness have moved right up the political agenda. America’s presidential election is largely being fought over questions such as whether taxes should rise at the top, and how big a role government should play in helping the rest. In Europe France’s new president, François Hollande, wants a top income-tax rate of 75%. New surcharges on the richest are part of austerity programmes in Portugal and Spain.

Even in more buoyant emerging economies, inequality is a growing worry. India’s government is under fire for the lack of “inclusive growth” and for cronyism that has enriched insiders, evident from dubious mobile-phone-spectrum auctions and dodgy mining deals. China’s leaders fear that growing disparities will cause social unrest. Wen Jiabao, the outgoing prime minister, has long pushed for a “harmonious society”.

Many economists, too, now worry that widening income disparities may have damaging side-effects. In theory, inequality has an ambiguous relationship with prosperity. It can boost growth, because richer folk save and invest more and because people work harder in response to incentives. But big income gaps can also be inefficient, because they can bar talented poor people from access to education or feed resentment that results in growth-destroying populist policies.

The mainstream consensus has long been that a growing economy raises all boats, to much better effect than incentive-dulling redistribution. Robert Lucas, a Nobel prize-winner, epitomised the orthodoxy when he wrote in 2003 that “of the tendencies that are harmful to sound economics, the most seductive and…poisonous is to focus on questions of distribution.”

But now the economics establishment has become concerned about who gets what. Research by economists at the IMF suggests that income inequality slows growth, causes financial crises and weakens demand. In a recent report the Asian Development Bank argued that if emerging Asia’s income distribution had not worsened over the past 20 years, the region’s rapid growth would have lifted an extra 240m people out of extreme poverty. More controversial studies purport to link widening income gaps with all manner of ills, from obesity to suicide.

The widening gaps within many countries are beginning to worry even the plutocrats. A survey for the World Economic Forum meeting at Davos pointed to inequality as the most pressing problem of the coming decade (alongside fiscal imbalances). In all sections of society, there is growing agreement that the world is becoming more unequal, and that today’s disparities and their likely trajectory are dangerous.



Not so fast

That is too simplistic. Inequality, as measured by Gini coefficients, is simply a snapshot of outcomes. It does not tell you why those gaps have opened up or what the trend is over time. And like any snapshot, the picture can be misleading. Income gaps can arise for good reasons (such as when people are rewarded for productive work) or for bad ones (if poorer children do not get the same opportunities as richer ones). Equally, inequality of outcomes might be acceptable if the gaps are between young people and older folk, so may shrink over time. But in societies without this sort of mobility a high Gini is troubling.

Some societies are more concerned about equality of opportunity, others more about equality of outcome. Europeans tend to be more egalitarian, believing that in a fair society there should be no big income gaps. Americans and Chinese put more emphasis on equality of opportunity. Provided people can move up the social ladder, they believe a society with wide income gaps can still be fair. Whatever people’s preferences, static measures of income gaps tell only half the story.

Despite the lack of nuance, today’s debate over inequality will have important consequences. The unstable history of Latin America, long the continent with the biggest income gaps, suggests that countries run by entrenched wealthy elites do not do very well. Yet the 20th century’s focus on redistribution brought its own problems. Too often high-tax welfare states turned out to be inefficient and unsustainable. Government cures for inequality have sometimes been worse than the disease itself.

This special report will explore how 21st-century capitalism should respond to the present challenge; it will examine the recent history of both inequality and social mobility; and it will offer four contemporary case studies: the United States, emerging Asia, Latin America and Sweden. Based on this evidence it will make three arguments. First, although the modern global economy is leading to wider gaps between the more and the less educated, a big driver of today’s income distributions is government policy. Second, a lot of today’s inequality is inefficient, particularly in the most unequal countries. It reflects market and government failures that also reduce growth. And where this is happening, bigger income gaps themselves are likely to reduce both social mobility and future prosperity.

Third, there is a reform agenda to reduce income disparities that makes sense whatever your attitude towards fairness. It is not about higher taxes and more handouts. Both in rich and emerging economies, it is about attacking cronyism and investing in the young. You could call it a “True Progressivism”.

Ambassador Tanin Chaired the 344th Meeting of the Committee on the Inalienable Rights of the Palestinian People at the UN Headquarters in NY

Palestinian Rights Committee Will Continue Calls on Security Council,   Others to Hold Israel Accountable for Its Actions, Chair Pledges

 Palestine’s Permanent Observer Outlines Developments

 As Secretariat Officials Detail Deteriorating Humanitarian, Legal Situations

Press Release

Expressing serious concern over a deteriorating humanitarian situation, as well as evictions and demolitions of homes, the Committee on the Exercise of the Inalienable Rights of the Palestinian People would continue to call on the Security Council and the High Contracting Parties to the Fourth Geneva Convention to hold Israel accountable, its Chair said today.


Zahir Tanin ( Afghanistan) voiced particular concern over the plan recently announced by the Government of Israel to evict Palestinian residents from eight villages in the south Mount Hebron area to make way for army training zones.  Israel continued its settlement announcements, publishing tenders for 171 new units in East Jerusalem, he said, condemning the continuing demolition of homes and violent attacks against Palestinians by Israeli settlers.


Summarizing developments in the region since the Committee’s 12 June meeting, Mr. Tanin recalled that violence had escalated around Gaza in June and July.  Rockets and mortars had been fired into Israel, and the Israeli Army had conducted airstrikes and incursions into Gaza, killing nine Palestinians and injuring 54 more.  Additionally, a committee led by retired Supreme Court Justice Edmond Levy had published a Government-commissioned report which claimed that the Israeli presence in the West Bank was not a military occupation and recommending the legalization of existing settlement outposts.


Ambassador Zahir Tanin Permanent Representative of Afghanistan to the United Nations

He went on to note that the Palestinian Authority faced acute challenges to remain solvent.  It had only been able to pay part of the June and July salaries of 150,000 employees, and expected a $1 billion budget shortfall for 2012, he said, adding that, during its 22 July meeting in Doha, the Arab League Follow-up Committee for the Arab Peace Initiative had supported Palestinian plans to seek further recognition at the United Nations without specifying a concrete timeline.  During a briefing to the Council on 25 July, United Nations Special Coordinator Robert Serry had expressed concern that developments on the ground were undermining prospects for a two-State solution, as well as ongoing attempts to reach agreement between Israel and the Palestinians on a package of confidence-building measures to pave the way for a resumption of high-level contacts.


Riyad Mansour, Permanent Observer of Palestine to the United Nations, said that an emergency meeting of the Non-Aligned Movement’s Committee on Palestine scheduled for 5 and 6 August in Ramallah had been scrapped after the Israeli Government’s banning of Foreign Ministers from Indonesia, Malaysia, Cuba, Nigeria and Bangladesh from entering the territory to attend the gathering.  The Committee had condemned that action in a communiqué and decided to send the “Ramallah Declaration” of support for upgrading Palestinian United Nations membership to the Movement’s Tehran Summit, scheduled for later this month.


“This action by Israel is not going to weaken our collective resolve to continue to have more countries recognize the State of Palestine,” he stressed.  Moreover, a League of Arab States ministerial meeting on 5 September would discuss the timetable for enhancing Palestine’s status in the United Nations system, including through the Security Council, the General Assembly and other agencies of the world body.


Mr. Mansour noted that Palestine had participated as a State in the just-concluded Tenth United Nations Conference on the Standardization of Geographical Names, which was important considering that Israel was attempting to change the names of Palestinian sites that had been in existence for hundreds of years.  During the United Nations Asian and Pacific Meeting in Support of Israeli-Palestinian Peace, held in Bangkok on 10 and 11 July, Thailand’s Foreign Minister had announced that the Thai and Palestinian ambassadors would formally establish diplomatic relations and exchange credentials on 1 August, he added.


Afterwards, Saleumxay Kommasith (Lao People’s Democratic Republic) presented the Chair’s Summary of the Bangkok meeting, of which the Committee took note.


Today’s meeting also featured a detailed briefing on the humanitarian impact of settlement construction and of forced displacement in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, including East Jerusalem, delivered in three parts.


Janique Thoele of the Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, delivered the first briefing, saying the impact of settlement activity could be seen in four areas:  demolitions and evictions; forced displacement; restricted movement and access to services; and settler violence and harassment.  All that amounted to a “protection crisis” with serious humanitarian consequences, she said, adding that the crisis had been occasioned by a failure to respect human rights and humanitarian law.


Presenting a brief slide show spotlighting the impacts of the occupation, she pointed out the effects of displacement, infrastructure demolition and ongoing settlement activity on the geography and physical character of the Occupied Palestinian Territory, which was dotted with myriad restricted zones and physical obstacles to movement.  Although settlements were illegal under international law, twice as many Israeli settlers as Palestinians lived in “Area C” today, she added.


Turning to the West Bank and Israel’s ongoing construction of the separation wall, she said that the structure, which the International Court of Justice had ruled should be torn down, continued to hamper Palestinian access to resources.  While Israel had a right to protect its security, it must respect international law, she emphasized.  The situation was also particularly dire for farmers who owned land located in the “seam zone” and required special permits allowing access to their land through special gates, only a few of which were open every day.  The Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs was also seriously concerned because the barrier prevented Palestinian citizens from seeking specialized health care, especially as some areas required them to obtain special permits.


In the last decade, more than 4,000 Palestinians, half of them children, had been displaced due to home demolitions, she said, adding that a total of 620 homes were demolished in 2001.  Palestinians in Area C could build homes and other structures on only 1 per cent of the land, while construction was prohibited outright on 70 per cent.  Meanwhile, Israeli settlements occupied 24.5 kilometres in East Jerusalem, while Palestinian construction took just 9.5 kilometres.  Some 200,000 Palestinians were not connected to the water network and relied on tinkered water.  They faced restricted movement, as well as access to education, health, water and sanitation services.  In the West Bank, 20 per cent of the population lived in poverty, 55 per cent were food insecure and 28 per cent were malnourished.


Turning to the occupation’s humanitarian impact, she said almost 500 Palestinians had been killed and 9,000 injured since 2005.  Settler violence, including physical attacks and damage to property, had increased by 165 per cent from 2009 to 2011, and 83 Palestinians communities were vulnerable to settler violence.  Settlers largely acted with impunity, she said, adding that more than 90 per cent of complaints alleging settler violence were closed without indictment.


Noting also Israel’s new trend of confiscating external humanitarian aid intended for the Palestinians, she said that since 2011, Israeli authorities had destroyed more than 150 donor-funded structures such as water tanks and tents.  Beginning in March 2012, it had impounded relief supplies even before they were delivered to the communities in need, she said, calling for effective law enforcement against settler violence, revision of an unfair zoning and planning regime, and enabling the humanitarian community to meet basic Palestinian needs.


Antonia Mulvey of the Norwegian Refugee Council, discussing legal matters, said the international community had resoundingly denounced Israel’s settlement construction, as evidenced by some 12 United Nations resolutions.  For example, Security Council resolution 465 (1980) explicitly called on Israel to dismantle its settlements and cease all construction.  Further, the International Court of Justice’s Advisory Opinion on the legal implications of the separation wall’s construction also stated that settlements were a “flagrant violation” of international law.  The 2004 decision also noted that parties to the Fourth Geneva Convention were obliged to ensure Israel’s compliance with international law.


Spotlighting other legal precedents rejecting Israel’s settlement activity, she cited specific articles of The Hague Regulations and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.  Yet, Israel did not recognize the overall applicability of the Fourth Geneva Convention to the Occupied Palestinian Territory, and did not view its destruction of Palestinian infrastructure and removal of Palestinians from their lands as a “forced population transfer”, proscribed under that treaty.  She added that the Israeli Government provided tax and other incentives for settlers, thought to include housing infrastructure amounting to some $240 million, none of which was made available to Palestinians.


Ambassador Zahir Tanin Permanent Representative of Afghanistan to the United Nations

While international law was very clear that settlements were illegal, she continued, Israel had adopted national legislation that delineated the basis under which such construction could be legal:  through political decision; State land only; lawfully designed building scheme; and boundaries decided by a military order.  Moreover, there was a clear dual legal system in place, she said, explaining, for instance, that the case of a Palestinian alleged to have committed manslaughter in Area C would go through Israeli military courts, while allegations against an Israeli citizen, perhaps living right next door, would be handled by civilian courts.  Settlers were increasingly not brought before the courts and impunity was growing, she warned, citing Susiya village in the southern Hebron hills.  Home to 350 people, Israel’s High Court of Justice was considering it for demolition, she said, adding that advocacy could have a huge legal impact in preventing such injustices.


Amira Hassan of the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA) New York Office, said the West Bank was home to 771,000 registered Palestine refugees, a quarter of whom lived in one of 19 camps, and the rest in towns and villages.  At least 2,300 Bedouins, particularly in Area C, were under threat of displacement due to settlement construction plans announced in July 2011.  Much advocacy thus far had prevented plans to move one Bedouin community to a garbage dump, she said, adding that their inability to sell animal products threatened traditional Bedouins’ livelihoods.


She went on to state that the Israeli Government was moving rapidly forward with a plan to turn Al Walaja village, located nine kilometres south-west of the old city of Jerusalem, into a national park, which would force out its 2,000 Palestinian residents without any compensation.  The authorities had posted a notice in Hebrew giving residents 60 days to file objections to the plan, but all objections made by a local committee had been rejected.  Another case study pointed to the Burin cluster in Nablus, where Palestinians had no access to 7,500 dunums of land.  In 2011, there had been 70 incidents of property damage, the highest number recorded during that year, she said, adding that, on 19 May, a group of settlers had set fire to four or five Palestinian homes in Burin.


During a brief question-and-answer period, Indonesia’s representative announced that his Government was planning for next year a meeting on the role of the media and civil society in dealing with the Palestinian question.  He added that his delegation would be seeking advice from the Department of Public Information.


The representative of the United Arab Emirates said the briefings had starkly highlighted the “ugly picture” of Israel’s occupation.  Stressing that other events in the region must not distract the international community’s focus from the truly dire situation faced by the Palestinian people, he said the situation in the Occupied Palestinian Territory was bound to deteriorate as Israel’s illegal activities continued.


Deborah Seward, Director of the Strategic Communications Division in the Department of Public Information, reported on the United Nations Media Seminar on Peace in the Middle East, held in Geneva on 12 and 13 June.  The event had featured messages from United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon and Wolfgang Amadeus Brulhart, Switzerland’s Assistant Secretary for the Middle East and North Africa, among other senior Government and United Nations officials, she said.  All participants in the Seminar — from Israel, the Occupied Palestinian Territory, the wider Middle East, Europe and the United States — had been encouraged to make use of social media such as Twitter and Tumblr, including ahead of the event and during its five panel discussions.


She said the discussions had focused on:  the prospects for peace approaching the twentieth anniversary of the Oslo Accords; how the Arab Spring had affected media coverage of the question of Palestine; the role of women’s activism and the media in promoting Israeli-Arab peace; civil society in media and film in the Middle East; and youth activism in the region, including evolving attitudes towards and tools for social change and democracy.  One of the Seminar’s main aims had been to focus on the Arab uprising and to explore their implications for the Palestinian question, she said.  Reflecting that theme, the Seminar’s organizers had made a specific effort to invite more women and youth to the event than in previous years, resulting in the youngest group of participants ever, as well as one all-female panel, another “first” for the Seminar.


Characterizing the discussions as “stimulating and challenging”, she went on to say that the panels had also benefited positively from the diverse experiences of the participants.  “The feedback we have received, both from the participants and from observers present at the Seminar, has been extremely positive,” she continued, noting that many participants had expressed appreciation of the opportunity to meet others face to face.  In at least one case known to the organizers, such opportunities had led to a group of journalists from different backgrounds and working in different areas to explore collaboration on a news story.  “So, in sum, we are extremely pleased and very encouraged by this year’s event,” she concluded.



The Office of the President of Islamic Republic of Afghanistan Decree On the execution of content of the historical speech of June 21, 2012 in the special session of National Assembly


After years of political isolation, wars, and destruction, we, the people of Afghanistan, have witnessed great political, social, and economic success; we have established our appropriate position in the international community. Along with establishing broad international relations, we have been able to sign important strategic agreements with countries in the region and in the world.

Alongside those achievements, unfortunately, we were faced with challenges in the areas of governance, fights against corruption, law enforcement, and economic self sufficiency.

For this reason, on June 21 of the current year, in a speech to a special session of the National Assembly [parliament], I laid out existing shortcomings and problems, and talked about measures to be taken for the elimination of those problems.

For the purpose of succeeding in those areas, for eliminating existing problems, and for bringing necessary reforms in the three branches of the government, I am approving the following measures:

1st– Joint discussions among government organs:

1. Based on the framework of the constitution and with consideration for separation of powers, the three branches of the government are responsible for the implementation of duties and authorities. They should work and cooperate in such a way that at the end of every fiscal year their developmental expenses should not be less than 50 percent of the allocated budget. The executive branch is accountable to the president for its activities, and should report to him for its actions.

2. I request the Supreme Court of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan to, in the course of six months, complete and finalize all dossiers currently in process within the judicial system, especially dossiers related to corruption, land usurpation, and chain-assassination.

3. I request the Supreme Court of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan to, in the course of nine months, activate all inactive courts in the provinces and districts, and staff them with professional personnel.

4. I request the Supreme Court of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan to, based on the timeframe determined in the law, simplify the judicial procedures for determining the destiny of the accused and suspects, and that the people should be informed of the results through media.

5. I am requesting the National Assembly, the highest legislative organ of the country, to consider the national interests of the Afghan nation and to exercise their duties and authorities in giving priority to a speedy implementation of realistic and legitimate proposals presented to them by the government. While watching the actions of the members of the government, they should help and cooperate with the government in the enforcing of law and timely implementation of developmental projects.

6. I request the National Assembly to, in the course of four and half months, rectify drafts of laws, executive orders, and agreements sent to them by the government.

7. High ranking government officials should separate themselves from supporting law breakers, criminals, and corrupt and guilty individuals. Judicial and law enforcement offices are ordered to take firm legal actions against those who get in the way of justice without considering their official position.

8: Within five months, members of the Cabinet must visit related regional centers at provincial and district levels in order to meet these areas’ needs. They must take measures to attend to their shortages and operational deficiencies. Then, they must report their findings to the Cabinet.

9. During the process of appointing qualified personnel, high ranking government officials must refrain from hiring based on intermediary recommendations. Administerial and state establishments are ordered to follow the rule of law when hiring civil servants in the judiciary, the prosecutors’ office, and universities.

10. Ministries and government administrations, including the judiciary organizations, are charged with the goal of attending to the problems [needs] of the people. They must prepare complete information, especially in provinces and districts, for the implementation of plans and procedures for completed tasks, major achievements, and the quality of their organization and personnel. Present the written report after confirmation and certification by the highest ranking authority in the center, and the verification of provincial governors, on the 28th and 29th of every month to the General Directorate of Administrative Affairs, and through the Cabinet Secretariat to the office of the president.

11. Judiciary agencies are ordered that no individual should be imprisoned, arrested, or placed under investigation without lawful rationale, or remain in prison for a longer period than his/her actual sentenced imprisonment. The Ministry of Interior, the Ministry of Justice, and the office of the Attorney General are ordered to present a report of their actions to the office of the president every three months through the General Directorate of Administrative Affairs and the Cabinet Secretariat.

12. The existence of unlawful weapons has caused the occurrence of bloodshed, bullying, illegal land confiscation, violations of human rights, breach of the decisions made by official organizations, and disturbances of order and justice. In order to eliminate these negative phenomena, under the disarmament program, the Defense and Interior Ministries and the General Directorate of National Security are charged with taking serious action throughout Afghanistan for collecting weapons. Introduce the violators and usurpers to the related agencies for further investigation. They must send their report to the office of the president through the General Directorate of Administrative Affairs and the Cabinet Secretariat.

13. The Ministries of Defense, Interior, Labor, Social Affairs Martyrs and Disabled, and the National Security Directorate are ordered to urgently pay serious attention to observing the rights of their patrons, immediate treatment of the injured, and the preservation of the rights of the Afghan National Police, National Army, and national security martyrs. Every three months, provide a report about their operations to the Cabinet.

14. Within a month, the General Directorate of Administrative Affairs, Ministry of Finance, the Ministry of Economy, the Cabinet Secretariat, the Independent Commission for Administrative Reform and Social Services, and the office of the president are charged with investigating parallel institutions such as (PAD/PMU/PIU) and other structures that are temporarily operating per project basis. They must provide an explanation for these entities’ existence along with the original ministries and directorates, and present it to the Cabinet.

15. Once again, all state organizations and agencies are ordered to refrain from signing contracts for provision of services, with high ranking state officials and those appointed and supported by them. Such conduct would be considered a crime, and those committing it will be legally investigated by the office of the Attorney General.

16. As the provider of security and social order, the Attorney General must gain the trust of the entire population. Therefore, all prosecutors in the country are ordered to fulfill their duties in such a manner that it will demonstrate reform. Their conduct must become the impetus for reform among government employees and members of the society. In this regard, it is the duty of the High Office of Oversight and Anticorruption, ANP’s Department of Criminal Investigation, National Security Directorate, and the Financial Inspection Directorate to help with the Office of the Attorney General. They must do so, not only as a parallel institution, but as an assistant. They must help concerning criminal documents, providing evidence, and in the process of obtaining elucidations. They must identify the violators of law and introduce them to the Attorney General for judicial investigation.

17. For the purpose of providing proper public services to the citizens, until election conditions are provided for municipalities, from now on, the process of appointing mayors will be conducted through the procedure for the selection of high-ranking positions, and by the recommendation of the Special Board of Councils and the Independent Directorate of Local Governance (IDLG). Within three months, IDLG is ordered to appoint provincial and major district chiefs by introducing eligible, honest, and professional individuals through the Board of Appointments.

18. The Interior, Higher Education, Information and Culture, Hajj and Pilgrimage, and the Education Ministries–with cooperation by the Council of Scholars, Imams of mosques, religious scholars, students, and intellectuals–are ordered to invite people for helping to achieve national unity, social consensus, friendship, brotherhood, peace and reconciliation, as well as virtue. They must seriously prevent those propaganda and programs which are contrary to social etiquette and order, causing the youth to deviate, creating negative perceptions within the society.

19. Advisors to the president play the role of a bridge between the office of the president and the people. Therefore, they must work to convey the opinions and suggestions of the people to the government, and strengthen this relationship. On a monthly basis, they must send a report about their operations to the office of the president through the General Directorate of Administrative Affairs and the Cabinet Secretariat.

2nd– The Ministry of Defense is charged with the following:

1. Within two months, with assistance by the Ministries of Finance, Economy, and Justice, it must revisit its provisional affairs. Clear and complete mechanisms must be organized and presented to the Cabinet.

2. Within three months, clarify and organize a just policy concerning promotions, appointments, and transfers; then report to the office of the president.

3. Within three months, foreign foundations that are included in the transition process, prepare an explanation, documentation, and registration of their properties, tools, and weapons. Following ratification by the Cabinet, practice it when taking over the responsibilities.

4. Within three months, in accordance with international agreements, engage in discussions with the United States, and with NATO members concerning Air Force Armament needs; present a report about achievements to the National Security Council and to the Cabinet.

5. Within six months, reexamine the plan for the settlement of forces in light of a detailed arrangement. Every two months, provide a report about the results of this operation to the National Security Council, and to the Cabinet.

6. Include the transition of the Bagram prisoners in operational priorities, and properly complete [the transition] prior to the predetermined deadline.

7. In accordance with proper conditions, promotions of staff, up to the rank of Colonel, must take place prior to 18 Aug 2012.

3rd– The Interior Ministry is Ordered to:

1. Within two months, act on those orders of the court regarding the confiscation of the public and private properties that are finalized, and conveyed to the Ministry of Interior. Send a report about its achievements to the General Directorate of Administrative Affairs and the Cabinet Secretariat.

2. Reassess the organization of the regional police within three months. In accordance with the former [existing] resolutions of the National Security Council, integrate parallel groups and structures with the regional police. Present a report to the Cabinet.

3. Within three months, should report to the Cabinet about living conditions in the country’s prisons and detention centers, and about human rights.

4. Within three months, should report to the Cabinet about information technology and with help of the Ministry of Communication the application of the first phase of electronic ID.

5. Within six months, should present a plan about the improvement of the operations of Kabul traffic police to the Cabinet, with the cooperation of Kabul municipality.

6. Within six months, in light of the detailed plan for transition process, review the plan of settling forces and report every two months to the National Security Council and the Cabinet.

7. The promotion of personnel to the rank of Colonel according to conditions outlined should be finalized before 18th of August.

8. According to the former presidential orders and decisions, the complete dissolving of private security companies and send a report about their belongings to the Ministry of Interior, in the quickest time.

4th–The Foreign Ministry is Ordered to:

1. Within three months, should present to the Cabinet the list of those Ministries who have disobeyed international treaties, and tangible legal violations of all laws, more than two times.

2. Within three months, should present to the office of the president a decision and mechanism for employing diplomats, reassess their qualifications, and particular proposals for improvement.

3. Within six months, should present to the office of the president of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan to assess the cooperation of all political offices outside the country (educational, cultural, transportation, military and all related offices) with connected organs.

5th–The Ministry of Justice is Ordered to:

1. Within two months, activate the legal translation board for contracts, treaties, and other international documents.

2. Within three months, with the cooperation of Directorate of the Administrative Affairs and Cabinet Secretariat and the Civil Services Administrative Improvements’ Independent Commission should review the law of the Government Fundamental Organizations and send their report to the Cabinet.

3. Within two months, the procurement law should complete the reviewed plan processes.

4. Within two months, the election law should be completed and should be sent to the Cabinet for approval.

5. Within six months, the municipalities’ law and the Office of the Attorney General law should be completed and presented to the Cabinet.

6th–The Office of the Attorney General is Ordered to:

1. Within one month, all the detainees should be assessed by their prosecutor’s offices, detentions without tangible reasons should be stopped and in the detention centers the list of the detainees together with the explanation for accusations be prepared and sent to the Judiciary Committee.

2. From the date of the promulgation of this decree, the proposal for the provincial prosecutor’s director’s appointments, like the appointments of the Ministries and other offices, should be presented to the office of the president of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan.

3. Within two months, with the help of the Ministry of Justice, the Attorney General’s office and the Ministry of Justice, in order to attend to the dossiers, should distinguish their duties and send their report to the Cabinet.

4. Within two months, the supervisory office of the prosecutor should be formed, or this authority should be passed to the supervisory office of the High Court and a special plan should be presented to the Cabinet.

5. Within six months, with the cooperation of the Ministry of Justice, the alternative to imprisonment plan should be prepared and presented to the Cabinet.

6. Within six months, the inactive prosecution offices in the districts should be activated by employment of professional personnel.

7. Within six months, the Prosecutor General’s office should assess all professional and supportive personnel, recognize the corrupt cadres, employ separate measures, and report to the office of the president.

7th–The High Office of Oversight and Anti-corruption is Ordered to:

1. Within two months, governmental offices and private sectors should take the criterion of the strategy for fight against corruption under supervision, and present their results to the office of the president.

2. Within six months, private institutions’ and government official’s suspicious wealth should be assessed and the report of their findings sent to the office of the president of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan every two months.

3. Within six months, assess all professional and supportive personnel offices, recognize corrupt officials, make specific recommendations, and present their results to the office of the president.

8th–The Independent Directorate of Local Governance is Ordered to:

1. Within a month, the posts of the governors should be assessed and their necessary improvements and specific proposals should be presented to the office of the president.

2. Within two months, the posts of the deputies to the provinces, with help of the Independent Commission for Administrative Improvement and Civilian Services, should be opened for free competition and hence patriotic, sincere, well qualified and suitable cadres employed.

3. Within three months, the draft of municipalities law and other legislative documents with the aim of traversing the stages, should be sent to the Ministry of Justice.

4. Within six months, the shortage of provincial organizations should be completed with suitable cadres from the Ministries and governmental offices.

5. Within six months, with help of the Ministries of Economic, Home Affairs, and Finance Ministry and other related foundations outline a mechanism so that the provincial reconstruction teams’ activities should be replaced with the present governmental organizations, and presented to the Cabinet.

6. During the years 2013 and 2014, with the cooperation of the Home Affairs and Finance Ministries, the administrative buildings for district officers and security commanders should be completed.

9th–The Directorate of the Administrative Affairs and the Secretariat of the Cabinet is Ordered to:

1. Within two months, prepare and organize the plan for the government official trips and should present it to the Cabinet.

1. Make a list of unimplemented resolutions and presidential decrees and orders from the era of the transitional government to the present, specified by offices and Ministries and present it to the Cabinet within two months.

2. In cooperation with the Ministry of Economic Affairs, assess the professional coordination between the Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation and the Ministry of Energy and Power on the issue of water and present a specific plan to the Cabinet within two months.

3. Assess professional collaboration between the Ministry of Water and Energy and Afghanistan Power Corporation, in cooperation with the Ministry of Economic Affairs, and present the results about the solution for saving electricity together with a specific plan to the cabinet within two months.

4. Reassess the government organizational structure in cooperation with the Independent Commission for Administrative Reforms and Public Services, and present the draft proposal of parallel organizations’ reform, mentioning the deletions, mergers, and specific instances to the office of the president of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan within three months.

5. Prepare a list of the individuals who have earned a Master’s degree and degrees higher than Master’s abroad, and are ready to serve in the government, and take appropriate action after obtaining instructions from the office of the president of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan within three months.

6. In cooperation with the Ministry of Justice, create the policy of obtaining continued benefits for the government officials who retire after serving in the government, and present it to the cabinet within three months.

10th– Ministry of Hajj and Pilgrimage is Assigned to:

1. Arrange at least ten educational courses for increasing the capacity of Imams and improving guidance affairs, and present its report to the Cabinet within two months.

2. Submit a plan for determining, returning, and developing endowed properties, and the process of utilizing its revenue to the Cabinet within three months.

3. Make efforts to better organize the process of obligatory and Umrah [can be performed anytime during the year] Hajj.

11th– The Independent Commission of Administrative Reforms and Public Services is assigned to:

1. Present a report about the details of implementation and need for CBR [Community Based Rehabilitation] and similar projects to the Cabinet within one month.

2. Reassess the structure of the commission and the appointment of the entire staff, including the appointing board commissioners and the High Directorate of Public Services, and present specific plans about the internal reforms in the Independent Commission of Administrative Reforms and Public Services considering high standards and minimum requirements of employment in the key positions of the commission to the office of the president of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan within one month.

3. Determine the date of the first general examination aimed at recruiting young cadre, and announce the mechanism for the examination through the media.

4. Within three months, present a comprehensive plan for adding the office of Deputy Minister for Professional Immunity and Public Services for Government Employees to the Cabinet.

12th– Independent Elections Commission is Assigned to:

1. Prepare the plan for registering names [of candidates] for presidential elections in the year 2014, and present it to the Cabinet within one month.

2. Prepare an organized and transparent election platform that guarantees people’s participation, and create a comprehensive schedule for presidential, parliamentary and provincial council elections within three months.

13th– The Ministry of Education is assigned to:

1. Arrange at least four short-term courses aimed at increasing the capacity of 40 thousand teachers, and present the report to the Cabinet within three months.

2. Expand the sustainment and monitoring policies of foundations of education on national and local levels, and present them to the Cabinet within three months.

3. Start evaluating all private and public schools and take serious action against schools that violate the educational polices of the country, or whose instructional qualities are substandard, within six months.

4. Present to the Cabinet the plan for creating a specific administrative unit for the purpose of promoting all the affairs of vocational education, including the foundations of secondary instruction and technical colleges in cooperation with the Ministries of Labor and Social Affairs Martyrs and Disabled, and Higher Education within six months.

5. Take action regarding recruiting 11,000 new teachers and staff through free competition and talent acquisition among qualified teachers and professors in the capital of the nation and the provinces, and present a monthly report to the Cabinet within six months.

6. Within six months, increase the number of teacher support centers for teacher training at district level from 111 to 180 in order to provide training opportunities to female teachers in rural areas.

7. In order to boost patriotism, with the commencement of the 2013 academic year include the subject of love of country to the curriculum of all public and private schools and monitor its proper instruction.

14th– The Ministry of Higher Education is assigned to:

1. Complete the mechanism for taking the college entrance examination and present it to the Cabinet for approval within three months.

2. In cooperation with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, address the problems of Afghan students abroad, and present its specific proposal for providing practical solutions to their problems within three months.

3. Within six months, start evaluating all private higher education institutions, and take action for the purpose of standardization regarding those who are operating against the higher education policies, or whose quality of instruction is substandard.

4. Present a specific plan to the Cabinet within six months for starting English language instruction in medicine and engineering schools of all universities starting the academic year 2013.

5. Examine the need for taking a government exam for graduates of private universities; provide a specific plan if required, and if not required, provide reasons to the Cabinet. within six months.

15th– The Ministry of Information and Culture is Assigned to:

1. Within two months, present a practical plan to the cabinet that is coordinated amongst relevant organizations, including the governor of Ghazni Province, for the improvement of the Affairs of the Islamic Heritage Center in Ghazni City.

2. Present a specific plan to the Cabinet about the quality control of public and private media and devise minimum standards within two months.

3. Within three months, present an action plan and report to the cabinet regarding national languages, dialects, national terminologies, omitting strange and unfamiliar terminologies from established literature, strengthening national unity, and observing and amplifying established Afghan traditions. To enrich Afghan culture, utilize public and private social media.

4. Present a policy for preserving and repairing historical monuments and ancient sites to the Cabinet, within six months.

16th– The Public Health Ministry is Required to:

1. Within six months, assess public and private hospitals, and take serious steps to standardize those hospitals which provide lower quality or operate contrary to the policies of the Public Health Ministry.

2. Investigate and assess the quality and quantity of all imported and produced medicine in the markets, and present its specific reform proposals to the Cabinet, within six months.

3. Take action for standardizing provincial and district hospitals, and to institutionalize public services.

17th– The Finance Ministry is Ordered to:

1. Present a finished proposal of “Golden Hand Shake” with the help of the Independent Administrative Reform and Civil Service Commission to the Cabinet, within six months.

2. Complete the Kabul Bank affairs assigned to Kabul Bank Audit Delegation, and present its report to the office of the President, within one month.

3. Make a proposal to pursue and implement the pledges of the Tokyo Conference within two months, and inform the Cabinet about its progress on a monthly basis.

4. Present a report to the Cabinet about those officials within the ministry who are either paid by the international organizations or their salaries are regulated by international organizations. Provide information about the level of their salaries and their contracts within two months.

5. Within three months, determine the future of food enterprises, silos, and the national buses [transportation]; and provide a specific plan for determining the future of all enterprises to the Cabinet.

6. Present a plan to the cabinet to equalize the salaries of civil servants within three months, with the cooperation of the Independent Administrative Reform and Civil Service Commission.

7. Within three months, develop a plan for improving the entire state revenues and the capacity of the related ministries based on national priorities, and present a plan for introducing new sources of revenues.

8. Within six months, develop a plan to spend the budget, which is provided by the United Nations, through the national budget for the 2014 election.

9. Assess and investigate the legality, fairness, and activities of all insurance companies, and present its report to the Cabinet within six months.

18th– The Ministry of Commerce and Industry is Ordered to:

1. Within a month, present a plan to the cabinet on the nature of appointments of commerce attachés in different countries, based on the needs and volume of commerce of each specific country.

2. Within two months, present a specific plan to the Cabinet on standardizing and resolving the problems of industrial parks.

3. Within three months, present a plan to the Ccabinet on strengthening export and national economy, and on expanding small and medium sized businesses, and reinforcing domestic industries.

4. Devise a policy for national commerce, and present it to the Economic Committee of the Cabinet, within three months.

5. Complete a study of strategic gas reserves and the mechanism of their sustainability, and present it to the Cabinet within six months.

19th– The Ministry of Economy is Ordered to:

1. Within one month, present specific plans for observation of the municipalities’ projects, including developmental projects, to the Cabinet.

2. Publish all contracts with all details (the summary of contracts should not be considered as sufficient) that were signed in the past three years with national and international companies, on the internet and other media outlets, with the cooperation of the Ministries of Finance and Telecommunication and InformationTechnology.

3. Within three months, present a specific plan to the Economic Committee of the Cabinet about the necessary definitions of national economic policies and trade.

4. Within six months, present a specific developmental plan, in coordination with the Ministry of Finance, to the cabinet for the upcoming four years.

5. Within six months, present a plan about infrastructure and other major projects to the cabinet based on the recommendations of the Tokyo Conference (2012), and in coordination with related agencies.

20th– The Afghanistan Bank is Ordered to:

1. Within one month, present a report to the office of the president of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan about outflow from the country through airports, and on how to oversee the process.

2. Within two months, present a report to the office of the president of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan on how to popularize the use of afghani (Afs) in the markets during daily business, and how to prevent the use of foreign currency in the markets.

3. Present a complete report to the office of the president of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan about manners and functions of private banks and consider the oversight of private banks as a top priority.

21st — The Ministry of Mines is Ordered to:

1. Present within one month, and in written form, a complete list of foreign advisors; the reasons for and the sources of their hiring, along with a list of their Afghan employees who are funded by foreign sources or receive additional benefits from them to the Directorate of Administrative Affairs and the Cabinet Secretary.

2. Complete the Mining and Petroleum Law and present it to the Cabinet within two months.

3. Present its plan for the prevention of unauthorized and non-professional extraction and for mine security within two months.

4. Publicize the list of individuals and companies who engage in unauthorized and illegal mining extraction through international media within two months.

5. Finalize a specific plan to provide for transparency regarding mining contracts in the country and present it to the Cabinet within three months. Contract transparency provisions will be based, above all, on agreed international principles and with considerations of the future of the country. It must publicize all contract details (not contract summaries) through the websites of the Ministries of Mines, Finance, and Economy.

22nd — The Ministry of Communications and Information Technology is Ordered to:

1. Ensure improvement in communication companies’ services and report the immunity and confidentiality of telephone subscribers’ conversations and means to prevent the use of mobile phones in terrorist attacks to the National Security Council within three months.

2. Present to the Cabinet a report regarding the feasibility of the implementation of an e-government.

23rd — The Ministry of Water and Energy is Ordered to:

1. Present a report to the Cabinet within one month regarding work progress in Machalgho, Pashdan, Shah-wa-Aroos, Salmah, Almar, and Kamal Khan electric dams and regarding the feasibility of electricity transmission from Naghlu and Sarubi [Dams] to the city of Jalalabad.

2. In cooperation from the outset with the Afghan Electricity Company, present a report to the Cabinet within three months regarding erecting an electricity network in the city of Kabul and in other major cities of the country.

3. Present to the Cabinet within six months the means for long-term self-sufficiency of electricity production in the country.

4. Subject the issue of electricity transmission to the country’s south, east and central regions, including Bamyan and Daykundi, to expert and technical assessment and present specific plans in this regard to the Cabinet within six months.

24th — The Ministry of Public Works is charged to:

1. Embark on establishing and determining the future of a railroad administration in Afghanistan within one month.

2. Begin repair of the Salangs [north and south highways] with the use of the five million dollar commitment of the international coalition forces and present a coherent report to the Cabinet within one month about these repairs as well as the building of Doshi-Pul-e Khumri road.

3. Prepare and present to the Cabinet within one month a list of all incomplete projects along with a description of reasons for their falling behind, stoppage, or delay.

4. Prepare and present to the Cabinet within two months a plan for the protection and monitoring of highways. The Ministry of Public Works is charged to place the protection and monitoring of highways and control over their construction at the top of its priorities.

25th — The Ministry of Transportation and Aviation is charged to:

1. Prepare transparent, comprehensive, and revised mechanisms for the collection of transportation revenues and present them to the Cabinet within three months.

2. Present a plan for the improvement of urban transportation to the Cabinet within six months.

3. Review the establishment and number of transportation offices abroad with a view to the transportation volumes and report to the Cabinet within three months.

4. Present to the Cabinet a specific plan for the building, expansion, and rebuilding of airports specified by province and district within three months.

5. Review the entire organizational structure and personnel of the ministry, identify corrupt officials, employ specific measures and report to the presidential office within six months.

26th — The Ministry of Urban Development is charged to:

1. Study the organizational structure and master plan for New Kabul and present a specific plan to the Cabinet within one month.

2. In cooperation with the Ministry of Justice, the Independent Commission for the Administrative Reform and Civil Service Commission, and presidential advisors, prepare and present to the Cabinet within two months a plan for the refinement of duties between municipalities and the Ministry of Urban Development.

3. To review master plans for Kabul and other provinces within three months and present it to the Cabinet.

4. To precisely and professionally assess documents of all townships [developments], identify existing construction violations as well as problems related to land ownership in those developments with the cooperation of the commission registered in Presidential Decree Number 2232, dated 27 June 2012.

27th — The Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation is charged to:

1. Present to the Cabinet within three months a specific plan regarding finding markets for agricultural products and strengthening the financial and technical bases of the country’s farmers.

2. In cooperation with the Ministries of Justice, Interior, the Attorney General’s Office, and the High Office of Oversight and Anti-Corruption, to collect precise information about the seizure of government and private land across the country, initially in first rank and later in other provinces.

3. Take action regarding the creation of cold storage rooms in accordance with decision of Cabinet third resolution of the year 1391 [ 2012]

4. Organize and present a practical achievement report to the Cabinet concerning the use of barren and arable lands within six months in accordance with former guidance and instructions of the office of the president of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan and Cabinet’s decision.

5. Organize a specific plan about the development of agricultural farms, include its practical programs in the 2013 budget year, and present a progress report to the Cabinet within six months.

6. Take appropriate measures regarding forests, especially the development and conservation of pistachio and pine trees, and present a report to the Cabinet.

28th — The Ministry of Rural Rehabilitation and Development is Ordered to:

1. Present a report to the Cabinet about the second phase of national reconciliation projects, mentioning the budget, exact place, the process of financing, and the officials responsible within one month, specified by provinces and districts.

2. Present a report to the Cabinet within two months about the repair and reconstruction of bridges and other facilities which were damaged as a result of flooding and natural disaster this year, specified by provinces and districts.

3. Present a specific plan to the Cabinet within three months about utilizing the provincial and district level developmental councils as unified councils, replacing multiple councils such as Council ofFfight Against Narcotics and other councils.

29th — The Ministry of Counter Narcotics is Ordered to:

1. Make a specific plan for this ministry, within a month, to come out with a policy making status where it can take practical steps to fight narcotics, and present it to the Cabinet.

2. Present a specific report in coordination with the Interior Ministry within two months to consider the merging among similar agencies, such as the office of the Deputy Minister of Counter Narcotics and other agencies.

3. Prepare a plan with the participation and cooperation of other Ministries in the fight against narcotics within three months, and present it to the Cabinet.

30th –The Ministry of Labor, Social Affairs, Martyrs and Disabled is Ordered to:

1. Implement a new retirement system and create bank accounts for retirees within six months.

2. Place the process for distributing funds to martyrs under its investigation with the help of High Office of Oversight and Anti-Corruption within six months, and present a final report to the Cabinet.

3. Create a national employment policy in coordination with job creating agencies within six months, and present it to the Cabinet.

4. Finish distributing electronic work permits to foreigners within six months, and present a report to the Cabinet

5. Create a program for skill development and job creation within six months, and present a report to the Cabinet.

6. Take measures on the country’s zone level to create institutes and training centers for vocational teachers within six months, and present a report to the Cabinet every month about work progress.

31st — Ministry of Refugees and Repatriation Must:

1. Present a report to the Cabinet about the just distribution of township developments for returning refugees in the 34 provinces of the country within three months.

2. Present a specific plan to the Cabinet about finding employment, building townships, and providing education for returning refugees within six months.

3. Devise a policy about the return of Afghan refugees with dignity from Iran and Pakistan within six months, and present it to the Cabinet.

32nd — The Ministry of Women’s Affairs Must:

1. Conduct a public awareness campaign to reduce violence against women through mass media, pulpits, takya khana [Shi’a worship place], and other news media sources within three months.

2. Implement a national working plan, devise a monitoring system within six months, and present the first report to the Cabinet.

33rd — The Kabul Municipality Must:

1. With the help of the Ministry of Communication and Information Technology, create a specific plan for naming all the places in Kabul City and for determining the fate of unplanned areas within two months, and present it to the Cabinet.

2. Prepare a plan for creating canalization and other city networks in Kabul City within four months, and present it to the Cabinet.

This decree and its addenda, which will be published later, do not interfere with the daily work of agencies and ministries. All ministries and government agencies are responsible for implementing this decree and its addenda. The secretariat of the General Directorate of Administrative Affairs and the Cabinet are charged to reinforce the current monitoring mechanism and to accurately observe the duties in this decree and its addenda. By appointing provincial monitoring teams, they should gather the specific information and present a report to the Cabinet and to the office of the president of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan.

Hamid Karzai

President of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan