Saturday, October 21, 2017

Obama Announces Nuclear Deal With Russia


MOSCOW – The United States and Russia, seeking to move forward on one of the most significant arms control treaties since the end of the of the cold war, announced Monday that they had reached a preliminary agreement on cutting each country’s stockpiles of strategic nuclear weapons.

The so-called framework agreement was put together by negotiators as President Obama arrived here for his first Russian-American summit meeting, and approved by Mr. Obama and Russia’s president, Dmitri A. Medvedev. They announced it at a news conference here Monday night.

The agreement commits both sides to modest reductions in the legal limits on nuclear arsenals as they draft a new arms control treaty for the next generation.

The summit meeting comes less than a year after the conflict in Georgia caused the worst tensions between the United States and Russia since the end of the cold war. The Obama administration has said it wants to rebuild in relations, and the meeting will offer the most telling evidence so far about how difficult that may prove.

Both sides say they hope that the nuclear agreement would effectively set the stage for a successor to the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty, a cold war-era pact that expires in December.

Beyond that, they said they want to build momentum for a broader agreement to be negotiated starting next year to impose deeper cuts in their nuclear arsenals and put the world on a path toward eliminating nuclear weapons altogether.

Russia has repeatedly objected to an American antimissile system in Eastern Europe, making clear that the United States needed to compromise on the system before Russia would sign off on an arms agreement. American officials say it is intended to ward off attacks from countries like Iran, but the Kremlin views it as a threat to Russia. On Monday, it appeared that the two sides decided to postpone addressing the missile system; they issued a joint statement indicating that they would continue to discuss it. They also agreed to undertake a joint assessment of any threats presented by Iran.

The framework document sets the parameters for talks through the end of the year, according to officials.

Negotiators are to be instructed to craft a treaty that would cut strategic warheads for each side to between 1,500 and 1,675, down from the limit of 2,200 slated to take effect in 2012 under the Treaty of Moscow signed by President George W. Bush.

The limit on delivery vehicles would be cut to between 500 and 1,100 from the 1,600 currently allowed under Start.

The countries would be required to meet the limits in the treaty within seven years, officials said.

Perhaps more important than the specific limits would be a revised and extended verification system that otherwise would expire with Start in December.

While only a first step, the agreement came only after arduous negotiations that at several points over the past few weeks appeared to be faltering.

In the end, though, both sides wanted to produce something so they could call the summit meeting a success and further the effort to improve relations, which soured in the final years of the presidency of Mr. Bush.

Mr. Obama also announced an agreement to resume military to military contacts nearly a year after Russia’s war with Georgia disrupted the relationship. They have also sealed a deal allowing the American military to fly up to 10 planes a day, or thousands a year, through Russian airspace to transport troops and weapons to the war in Afghanistan.

In opening remarks at the Kremlin, Mr. Obama and Mr. Medvedev said they hoped their meetings would improve relations in both tone and substance. Mr. Obama noted that the two had met at the Group of 20 summit meeting in April in London.

“We are confident that we can continue to build off the extraordinary discussions that we had in London,” Mr. Obama said, “and that on a whole host of issues – including security issues, economic issues, energy issues, environmental issues – that the United States and Russia have more in common than they have differences.”

Mr. Medvedev suggested Russia wanted to overcome recent strains as well. “It is our expectation,” he said, “that during the deliberations that we will have today and tomorrow, we will have full-fledged discussions regarding the relations between our two countries, a closing of some of the pages of the past and an opening of some of the pages of the future.”

The nuclear arms limits embraced by Monday’s agreement would codify and continue the natural reductions of each side’s arsenal that have been occurring since the end of the cold war.

The United States currently has 1,198 land-based intercontinental ballistic missiles, submarine-based missiles and bombers, which together are capable of delivering 5,576 warheads, according to its most recent Start report in January. Because not all of them are “operationally deployed,” the Arms Control Association estimates that the United States currently deploys at least 2,200 strategic nuclear warheads.

Russia reported in January that it has 816 delivery vehicles capable of delivering 3,909 warheads. While the number of deployed Russian strategic warheads is not known, the Arms Control Association estimated it between 2,000 and 3,000. Both sides also have more warheads that are in storage or awaiting dismantlement and the treaty discussions do not cover thousands more tactical nuclear weapons.

Even so, the proposed missile defense system looms over the summit meeting. Under the Bush plan, the system would be based in Poland and the Czech Republic. “While the previous administration of the United States took a very hard-headed position on this issue,” Mr. Medvedev said over the weekend, “the current administration is ready to discuss the topic. I think that we are fully able to find a reasonable solution here.”

While Mr. Obama is not as enthusiastic about the system as Mr. Bush, he has not abandoned it and is awaiting a review by his advisers. In the meantime, he has resisted linking the missile defense system to the arms reductions negotiations.

Source: The New York Times

Photography Exhibition Opens at the German House

Afghanistan Mission , July 1 2009
Photography Exhibition Opens at the German House [Read more…]

Marines Launch New Afghan Mission

Rajiv Chandrasekaran–

CAMP LEATHERNECK, Afghanistan,  U.S. Marines began fanning out across the southern Helmand River valley Thursday, traveling by foot and armored convoys under the scorching summer sun in an effort to wrest control of the area from Taliban insurgents.

Marine commanders reported only modest resistance from insurgent fighters as troops poured out of helicopters in the early morning and began conducting patrols. Some units encountered light small-arms fire, and one Marine company was attacked with rocket-propelled grenades after it discovered a cache of homemade explosives in a housing compound.

One Marine was killed in a firefight, officials said. But no further details were released.

Also Thursday, the military said that a U.S. soldier in a different part of Afghanistan had gone missing earlier in the week and was believed to have been captured by Taliban forces.

Overall, the push into Helmand province and other southern Taliban strongholds is “going remarkably well so far,” said Col. Eric Mellenger, the operations officer for the 2nd Marine Expeditionary Brigade, which is conducting the operation.

One Marine battalion moved into the Nawa district of Helmand province, located to the south of the provincial capital, Lashkar Gah. Another battalion established footholds further south, in the district of Garmser.

The mission, which involves about 4,000 Marines, is the first large-scale test of the U.S. military’s new counterinsurgency strategy in Afghanistan. The Marines, along with an Army brigade that is scheduled to arrive later this summer, plan to push into pockets of the country where NATO forces have not been able to maintain order.

The two districts that are the initial focus of the Marine operation — Nawa and Garmser — have long been Taliban strongholds. Although British troops serving under NATO’s Afghan command have waged several battles against the insurgents in both areas over the past three years, the British lacked sufficient forces to maintain a significant presence in the districts. As a consequence, the Taliban have been able to shut down schools, drive out government officials and intimidate the local population.

Marine commanders said before the start of the operation that they expected only minimal Taliban opposition at the outset but that assaults on the forces would probably increase once they moved into towns and began patrols. Troops in the field have been told to prepare for suicide attacks, ambushes and roadside bombings.

“They’ve backed off for now, but there will almost certainly be more attacks to come,” said Col. Burke Whitman, who serves as a liaison officer to the local Afghan security forces. “They’re waiting to see what we do.”

Once Marine units arrive in their designated towns and villages, they have been instructed to build and live in small outposts among the local population. The brigade’s commander, Brig. Gen. Lawrence D. Nicholson, said his Marines will focus their efforts on protecting civilians from the Taliban and on restoring Afghan government services, instead of mounting a series of hunt-and-kill missions against the insurgents.

“We’re doing this very differently,” Nicholson said to his senior officers a few hours before the mission began. “We’re going to be with the people. We’re not going to drive to work. We’re going to walk to work.”

Similar approaches have been tried in the eastern part of the country, but none has had the scope of the mission in Helmand, a vast province that is largely an arid moonscape save for a band of fertile land that lines the Helmand River. Poppies grown in that territory produce half the world’s supply of opium and provide the Taliban with a valuable source of income.

The operation launched early Thursday represents a shift in strategy after years of thwarted U.S.-led efforts to destroy Taliban sanctuaries in Afghanistan and extend the authority of the Afghan government into the nation’s southern and eastern regions. More than seven years after the fall of the Taliban government, the radical Islamist militia remains a potent force across broad swaths of the country. The Obama administration has made turning the war around a top priority, and the Helmand operation, if it succeeds, is seen as a potentially critical first step.

Traveling through swirling dust clouds under the light of a half-moon, the first Marine units departed from this remote desert base shortly after midnight on dual-rotor CH-47 Chinook transport helicopters backed by AH-64 Apache gunships and NATO fighter jets. Additional forces poured into the valley during the pre-dawn hours on more helicopters and in heavy transport vehicles designed to withstand the makeshift but lethal bombs that Taliban fighters have planted along the roads.

Officers here said the mission, which required months of planning, is the Marines’ largest operation since the 2004 invasion of Fallujah, Iraq. In the minutes after midnight, well-armed Marines trudged across the tarmac at this sprawling outpost to board the Chinooks, which lumbered aloft with a burst of searing dust. A few hours later, another contingent of Marines boarded a row of CH-53 Super Stallion helicopters packed onto a relatively small landing pad at a staging base in the desert south of here. As the choppers clattered through the night sky, dozens of armored vehicles rolled toward towns along the river valley.

The U.S. strategy here is predicated on the belief that a majority of people in Helmand do not favor the Taliban, which enforces a strict brand of Islam that includes an-eye-for-an-eye justice and strict limits on personal behavior. Instead, U.S. officials believe, residents would rather have the Afghan government in control, but they have been cowed into supporting the Taliban because there was nobody to protect them.

In areas south of the provincial capital, local leaders, and even members of the police force, have fled. An initial priority for the Marines will be to bring back Afghan government officials and reinvigorate the local police forces. Marine commanders also plan to help district governors hold shuras — meetings of elders in the community — in the next week.

“Our focus is not the Taliban,” Nicholson told his officers. “Our focus must be on getting this government back up on its feet.”

But Nicholson and his top commanders recognize that making that happen involves tackling numerous challenges, starting with a lack of trust among the local population. That mistrust stems from concern over civilian casualties resulting from U.S. military operations as well as from a fear that the troops will not stay long enough to counter the Taliban. The British army, which had been responsible for all of Helmand since 2005 under NATO’s Afghan stabilization effort, lacked the resources to maintain a permanent presence in most parts of the province.

“A key to establishing security is getting the local population to understand that we’re going to be staying here to help them — that we’re not driving in and driving out,” said Col. Eric Mellenger, the brigade’s operations officer.

With the arrival of the Marines, British forces have redeployed around the capital of Helmand, Lashkar Gah, where they are conducting a large anti-Taliban operation designed to complement the Marine mission. Two British soldiers were reported killed in fighting in the province Wednesday.

The Marines have also been vexed by a lack of Afghan security forces and a near-total absence of additional U.S. civilian reconstruction personnel. Nicholson had hoped that his brigade, which has about 11,000 Marines and sailors, would be able to conduct operations with a similar number of Afghan soldiers. But thus far, the Marines have been allotted only about 500 Afghan soldiers, which he deems “a critical vulnerability.”

“They see things intuitively that we don’t see,” he said. “It’s their country, and they know it better than we do.”

Despite commitments from the State Department and the U.S. Agency for International Development that they would send additional personnel to help the new forces in southern Afghanistan with reconstruction and governance development, State has added only two officers in Helmand since the Marines arrived. State has promised to have a dozen more diplomats and reconstruction experts working with the Marines, but only by the end of the summer.

To compensate in the interim, the Marines are deploying what officers here say is the largest-ever military civilian-affairs contingent attached to a combat brigade — about 50 Marines, mostly reservists, with experience in local government, business management and law enforcement. Instead of flooding the area of operations with cash, as some units did in Iraq, the Marine civil affairs commander, Lt. Col. Curtis Lee, said he intends to focus his resources on improving local government.

Once basic governance structures are restored, civilian reconstruction personnel plan to focus on economic development programs, including programs to help Afghans grow legal crops in the area. Senior Obama administration officials say creating jobs and improving the livelihoods of rural Afghans is the key to defeating the Taliban, which has been able to recruit fighters for as little as $5 a day in Helmand.

In meetings with his commanders at forward operating bases over the past three days, Nicholson acknowledged that focusing on governance and population security does not come as naturally to Marines as conducting offensive operations, but he told them it is essential that they focus on “reining in the pit bulls.”

“We’re not going to measure your success by the number of times your ammunition is resupplied. . . . Our success in this environment will be very much predicated on restraint,” he told a group of officers from the 2nd Battalion, 8th Marines on Sunday. “You’re going to drink lots of tea. You’re going to eat lots of goat. Get to know the people. That’s the reason why we’re here.”

Washington Post Staff Writer
Thursday, July 2, 2009 10:06 AM

Sorce: The Washington Post

Permanent Mission of Afghanistan